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Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan


Volume 4

New Yuadorgus (Coleoptera, Trechinae) from Southwestern Shikoku, Japan
  Two new species and a new subspecies of anophthalmic trechine beetles belonging to the subgenus Yuadorgus are described from the southwestern part of the Island of Shikoku, Southwest Japan. Both the new species were taken from abandoned mine adits dug into mudstone, and considerably extended the distributional range of the subgenus towards the southwest. The new subspecies occurred in one of the group of caves lying in the Torinosu limestone, from which no anophthalmic trechine bcetles had ever been known.
A New Quedius (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from an Old Gold Mine in Central Japan
 A new subterranean species of the genus Quedius is described and illustrated under the name of Quedius uenoi, It was found by Dr. Shun-Ichi UENO in an adit of an old gold mine in Shizuoka Prefecture, Central Japan. Though related to Q. yasuhikoi K. SAWADA from Mt. Kiso-koma-ga-take, it differs from that species in the size and coloration of body and in the structure of male genital organ, especially of the apical part of median lobe.
 A New Genus and Species of Nemasomatid Mllliped from Central Honshu, Japan
  A new nemasomatid milliped is described from the limestone cave called "Shinodachi-nchkaza-ana" Iying at the northeastern foot of the Suzuka Mountain Range in Mie Prefecture, Central Japan. This species is remarkable in having hairy body segments and modified first pair of legs, and belongs to a new genus herewith erected under the name of Dasynemasoma. This is the sixth genus of the family Nemasomatidae occurring in East Asia.
Spiders from Tuff` and Wave-cut Caves of Southern Kyushu, Japan (II)
 In this paper, a new species, Cicurina macuhfera, is described from Katano-do Cave in southem Kyushu. It seems to belong to the Part C of the Division 4 of Cicurina (s. str.) in the classification proposed by CHAMBERLIN and IVIE.
 One More New Subgenus and a New Species of Troglobiontic Water-mite from New Zealand
  A male of a troglobiontic water-mite, Tryssaturus (Paratryssaturus) morimotoi subgen. et sp. nov., is described from the water of Gorge Creek Cave, Takaka Hill, NW Nelson, South Island, New Zealand.
 Taisho-do Drainage Cave System at the Northern Part of the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau -- A Model of Development of Phreatic Cave Systems ---

 In the Taisho-do area at the northern part of the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, a remarkable phreatic cave system consisting of the Caves Taisho-do, Sango-ana, Inugamori-no-ana and Current-mark-no-ana is developed. The total length of these caves is about 2,200 m. Inugamori-no-ana drains the Akumizu (Sayama) Valley of Sayama Polije at the flood time. The water flows through the underground of the plateau, and emerges to the surface from Shibao-Kanoide springs 2 km west of the Taisho-do area. These caves contain many solution features of phreatic origin and show conspicuous loops and maze pattern in the cave framework. It may, therefore, be presumed that they arose as a phreatic drainage cave system at the initial stage, when the water table was over 100 m above sea-level. Owing to the intermittent falls of the water table, the caves developed at the altitude of 175-180 m and 165-160 m, respectively. Water-table enlargement and vadose cutting in the later stage of development of the cave system is also recognized.

Micromorphology of Some Speleo-phosphate-minerals --- A Scanning Microscope Study --
 This study deals with the micromorphology observed by scanning micro-scope techniques of three phosphate-minerals which occur as earthy and powdery texture aggregates or massive microcrystalline crusts in ten limestone caves and one lava cave of Japan and Korea. Scanning microscope photomicrographs clearly show a new approach to the morphology of microcrystals of brushite, hydroxyapatite and taranakite.
 Chemical Components of Groundwaters in the Hirao-dai (Plateau) Karst Area] SAKAE, N.,
 Cave and spring waters from the Hirao-dai (Plateau) karst area, Fukuoka Prefecture, were measured for temperature, pH, RpH, and contents of Na+ K+ , Mg2+, Ca2+ , Sr2+ , total iron, HC03-, Cl- , S042-, P043-, Si02, and HB02. There was an equivalent relationship between the content of Mg2+ + Ca2+ and that of HC03-, as shown in Fig. 3. Furthermore, the average ratio of Ca2+ to Mg2+ contents was in fairly good agreement with that of the carbonate rocks from Hirao-dai (Plateau), which is mainly composed of crystalline limestone. These two metal ions may, therefore, be supplied by the dissolution of the limestone (reaction (1)). The relationships between the content of Na+ and K+ and that of silicic acid, and between the content of Na+ and that of K+ (Figs. 4 and 5) show that water containing about 2 ppm of Na+ , its origin being rain water and dry fallout, erodes non-carbonate rocks in the presence of dissolved CO2 (reactions (2) and (3)), and that the minerals responsible for the reactions may have a similar ratio of Na and K contents. Dripping water in limestone caves contained a large amount of Ca2+ and HCO3-. On the contrary, stream and spring waters in the non-carbonate area (Nos. 6, 7 and 28) had Na+ and Si02 at somewhat high concentrations. For the Seiryu-kutsu cave system, the concentrations of Ca2 + and HC03- in water became higher in the lower course of the stream. The chemical composition of the stream water of Senbutsu-do (cave), Iocated downstream from the Yoshigatani caves, did not show similar phenomenon to that of the Seiryu-kutsu cave system. It is assumed that there are other groundwater systems from non-carbonate rock area, which are not yet known.
 Chemical Composition of Calcareous Deposits in Caves
 Chemical composition was deterrnined for a stalactite of almost pure aragonite from a Korean cave (Sam-ou-gul Cave), and the result was compared with those of calcite speleothems in Japan. From the analytical data, it was presumed that the existence of strontium and magnesium at somewhat high concentrations in the parent solution was the deterrnining factor for the deposition of aragonite in Sam-ou-gul Cave. The contents of trace metals, such as manganese, copper, zinc and cadmium, in the calcite speleothems were larger than those in the aragonite stalactite. This tendency can be explained by the similarity in crystal forms of their carbonates to calcite, Boron was concentrated in aragonite than in calcite. The contents of sodium, potassium, iron and phosphorus were related to insoluble residue.