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Journal of the Speleological Society of Japan


Volume 1

 A New Anophthalmic Trechiama (Coleoptera, Trechinae) from the Minoo Hills, Central Japan
A new anophthalmic trechine species belonging to the group of Trechiama ohshimai is described from the Minoo Hills in central Japan, under the name of T. nagahinis. It must be primarily endogean in nature, but the sole natural habitat hitherto known of this species is in the dark zone of an abandoned manganese mine dug into the volcanic breccia.
 Occurrence of Prionomatis (Diplopoda, Polydesmidae) in Western Shikoku, Japan
The genus Prionomatis had previously been known only from Kyushu and its accessory islands, Southwest Japan. Recently, a new troglobiontic species of the genus was found in the western part of the Island of Shikoku. It differs from all the other known species of the genus in the structure of male gonopods, and is described under the name of P. tetsuoi.
Nesticid Spiders (Araneae, Nesticidae) of Kochi Prefecture,Shikoku, Japan
As a part of the studies on cave spiders from Kochi Prefecture in Shikoku, Japan, the author has examined 280 specimens of Nesticus. They are classified into five species and two subspecies belonging to four different types, as listed below.
l . Ehime type : Nestic'us rakanus n. sp.
2. Kochi A type: Nesticus tosa n. sp., N. tosa iwaya n. subsp., N. tosa niyodo n. subsp., N . anagamianus n. sp.
3. Kochi B type: Nesticus sp. (male unknown). Description is deferred.
4. Tokushima type : Nesticus longiscapus n. sp.
 The type-specimens of the new taxa are preserved in the collection of the Arachnological Society of East Asia, Ohtemon-Gakuin University, Ibaraki, Osaka.
 Preliminary Report on the Late Pleistocene:Micro-Mammalian Fossils from Kumaishi-do Cave, Cifu Prefecture,Central Japan
Kumaishi-do Cave, one of many limestone caves in the Gujo area, northern part of Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan, has been known to bear many mega-fossils such as Palaeoloxodon naumanni, Sinomegaceros yabei, and Alces sp. The faunal composition indicates the Late Pleistocene in age, possibly the Wurm Glacial time. Micro-mammalian assemblage, however, has been almost neglected in previous works. The present paper reports a preliminary result of the study on micro-mammalian fossils from Kumaishi-do Cave. The washing-and-screening method yields the following species.
Myotis sp.  -Rare
Murina leucogaster MILNE-EDWARDS -Rare
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (SCHREBER) -Rare
Lepus brachyurus TEMMlNCK  -Common
Clethrionomys sp. -Very rare
Eothenomys sp. -Abundant
Microtus montebelli (MILNE-EDWARDS) -Abundant
Apodemus speciosus (TEMMINCK) -Common
 The micro-mammalian assemblage of Kumaishi-do Cave is characterized as follows.
 l) Rodents are predominant in number. Especially Microtus montebelli and Eothenomys sp. are abundant among the group. The assemblage may have had a different numerical composition in comparison with the living one in the area. The micro-mammals in the present forest around the cave are characterized by the abundance of Apodemus.
2) Occurrence of Clethrionomys sp. is of paleobiogeographical significance in spite of its scarcity of the occurrence, because the genus is limited in distribution to Hokkaido of the present Japanese Islands.
3) The micro-mammalian assemblage, except one exotic species, resembles the present faunal elements in the area, whereas a half of the larger mammalian species are exotic or extinct in the Japanese Islands. The micro-mammalian assemblage in the area is considered to have been persistent, with a slight modification, since the Wurm Glacial. The larger mammals, on the other hand, may have become extinguished by the post-glacial climatic change, isolation
 Development of the Yoshigatani Drainage Cave System, Hirao-dai (Plateau)-- Change and Development of Underground Drainage System as a Nick-point Recession--
Hirao-dai (Plateau) is located in the south of Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Prefecture. Most part of the plateau is composed of the crystalline limestone and has an altitude from 350 to 700 meters. In the east part of Hirao-dai there is a small blind valley (uvale) called Yoshigatani, and a rivulet which rises in the neighboring non-limestone area flows into that valley. There are several small limestone caves along the drainage and some peculiar solutional features are observed in each cave. The rivulet turns to the underground stream which flows on the floor of Yoshigatani-daini-do (cave) and is surmised to lead into the inner chamber of Senbutsu-do, a famous commercial cave in this region. For the topographical positions of these caves, Yoshigatani drainage system in previous age is surmised to have been linked by the route, Yoshigatani-daiichi-do-Yoshigatani-daisan-do-lV chamber of Yoshigatani-daini-do-Pre-Senbutsu-do (?) or the former spring at higher altitude (Fig. 8, A route). In this stage, Yoshigatani-daisan-do situated at the most downward part of the valley seems to have played as the most active swallow hole. Subsequently, I to IV chambers of Yoshigatani-daini-do are inferred to have been jointed by some cause, so that the surface stream converted into the underground flow on the way and permitted to take the recent drainage system (Fig. 8, B route). On the contrary, the former rivulet course became a dry valley after ceasing to have a surface flow. By the way, the examples of the nick-point recession in limestone areas described by WARVICK (1960) are briefly summarized in two types (Fig. 9). The type A is that the surface stream (or underground stream) in former age turns to a new underground drainage route, so that the nick-point recession takes place discontinuously. This type is peculiar to limestone regions. The example mentioned above belongs to this type, A.
 Vertical grooves, "declivous nichelike grooves" and other solutional features are observed in the wall of lll chamber of Yoshigatani-daini-do (Fig. 7). Some "declivous nichelike grooves" are incised on both sides of the wall and lead to each basin of water falls. Obviously, these nichelike grooves seem to indicate the basins of water falls in previous ages and vertical grooves may have been formed on the back wall of former falls. These features suggest that the chamber was formed by upstream migration of the falls. The cataract looks just like Ruby Fa]Is described by BRETZ (1942) and the migration of the falls seems to correspond with B-type recession in Fig. 9. This type recession occurs successively as in non-limestone areas, but one of the most different features is that the migrated space remains as a cave in limestone areas. These nick-point recessions (i.e. formation of new underground drainage system) are considered to have played important roles in the developmental history of Yoshigatani cave system and support the theories of GARDNER (1935), MALOTT (1938) and WOO DWARD (1961), who emphasized the role of underground drainages in the process of cave development.
The Phosphate Minerals from Kyusen-do cave, Southern Kyushu
Recent exploration of Kyusen-do Cave, Kuma Village, Kumamoto Prefecture, southern Kyushu, by the Scientific Exploration Group of Ehime University has revealed an extensive cave system in the Triassic limestone. Kyusen-do Cave is a Japanese limestone cave which contains exceptional]y well phosphatized minerals. Brushite, hydroxyapatite, taranakite and variscite have been found as phosphate minerals by X-ray diffraction analyses. The author has described its phosphate minerals, discussed on their origin, and shown how little is known about them, to encourage future studies.
Contributions from the Spelaeological Society of Japan
The Spel(a)eological Society of Japan was first planned on October 18, 1954, on the occasion of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan, and was founded on October 12, 1956, under the presidency of Emeritus Professor Masuzo UENO. Since the Society had only forty-four members then, it could not afford to publish its own journal. Therefore, it was decided at its first official meeting that the articles to be published by its members in various journals should have serial numbers of contributions from the Society. At present, these contributions amount to 161, most of which are biospeological papers.
 With the reorganization of the Society in 1975, it resolved to issue a new speleological journal and to cease to number its contributions. A complete list of the 161 papers is as given below.